Pwgen is a password generator for creating easily memorable passwords. I stumbled across this tool and found it to be one of the best for Linux and macOS.


Arch Linux

$ pacman -S pwgen

Most Linux distributions should have a package management system with pwgen in their own repositories.


$ brew install pwgen

Pwgen is also available in MacPorts.


$ pwgen -h

Usage: pwgen [ OPTIONS ] [ pw_length ] [ num_pw ]

Options supported by pwgen:
  -c or --capitalize
        Include at least one capital letter in the password
  -A or --no-capitalize
        Don't include capital letters in the password
  -n or --numerals
        Include at least one number in the password
  -0 or --no-numerals
        Don't include numbers in the password
  -y or --symbols
        Include at least one special symbol in the password
  -s or --secure
        Generate completely random passwords
  -B or --ambiguous
        Don't include ambiguous characters in the password
  -h or --help
        Print a help message
  -H or --sha1=path/to/file[#seed]
        Use sha1 hash of given file as a (not so) random generator
        Print the generated passwords in columns
        Don't print the generated passwords in columns
  -v or --no-vowels
        Do not use any vowels so as to avoid accidental nasty words


Generate one single password.

$ pwgen -c -n -y 100 1

This password uses

  • at least 1 capital letter
  • at least 1 number
  • at least 1 symbol
  • 100 characters
  • 1 total password

Tell Pwgen to give 10 passwords.

$ pwgen -c -n -y -s 100 10

I think anyone should get the idea right away. In short, you can easily fine tune Pwgen to give as complex of passwords as needed.


Mozilla Thunderbird is a free, open source, cross-platform email, news, and chat client developed by the Mozilla Foundation.

Mozilla Thunderbird is arguably the best Mail User Agent for the desktop. Being an avid user of Email I thought I would list some of the extensions I find makes Thunderbird even better in no specific order.

Adblock Plus

First on the list is Adblock Plus. I really think it's ridiculous to serve ads in Emails, so this works really well for anyone looking to block all those annoying ads. This extension is probably not needed if Emails are read in plain text.

Display Quota

This is a nice extension to display your mail quota. I use quotas on my mail servers and like how this extension will tell you how many messages are in each folder. You can also have it give you a warning when you reach a certain percentage and modify it's appearance.


This is a must have extension all Thunderbird users should have. It does a great job at what it was intended to do - sign & encrypt Email messages. From my experience it has been quite stable.


This extension is great for those looking to import or export folders and messages. There are plenty of available options.

Manually sort folders

I'm not sure why Thunderbird does not have native support for manually sorting folders, but this extension really does deliver. You can sort manually or automatically and re-order accounts in the folder pane. Definitely worth having.

Markdown Here

I really enjoy using markdown and just so happen to write my blog using markdown, so thought why not extend support to other apps like Thunderbird. This extension works really well for writing Email messages using markdown syntax.

Send Later

I needed to send an Email at a specific time and found Send Later to exist. I'm glad I came across this extension because it definitely excels at what it does. The caveat is that Thunderbird must be open for it to work, but the support page suggests some solutions.

I originally thought about writing a small script to do this, so decided to write something up that I could easily use on Linux and macOS systems.

#!/usr/bin/env bash

## use the 'at' command to send an outgoing email at a specific time
AT="at 9:00 AM Today" # 'at' expressions:


# Begin script
mail -s "$SUBJECT" -c "$Cc" -b "$Bcc" -r "$MAILFROM" "$MAILTO"



I use pigeonhole with Dovecot for Sieve support on my Linux server. I'm really glad this Thunderbird extension exists. It easily implements the ManageSieve protocol to securely manage Sieve Script on a remote IMAP server. For example, we can set a vacation notice.

require ["body","fileinto","vacation"];
# rule:[Vacation]
if true
    vacation :days 2 :addresses "" :subject "Out of Office" "Thanks for your message. I am on vacation and will respond to emails when I return.";

I want to also point out you can grab the latest Thunderbird Sieve extension on GitHub. I had to use a Development Build because the extension available from the official Mozilla page would hang and never make the initial connection.

So there you have all the extensions worth mentioning that I find make Thunderbird even better. Leave a comment if you have any other useful Thunderbird extensions!


LDAP makes it a breeze to add multiple domain names you wish to serve email accounts with. Although I am describing how I configured multiple domains in my own environment using OpenLDAP - this should also work for other LDAP implementations.

Domains Organizational Unit

dn: ou=Domains,dc=domain1,dc=net
objectClass: organizationalUnit
objectClass: top
ou: Domains
description: Domains used for Postfix as its list of locally hosted domains

This LDIF will define our Domains Organizational Unit (OU). Add the LDIF with ldapadd so our domains have a container to live in.

Adding Domains

objectClass: dNSDomain
objectClass: top

objectClass: dNSDomain
objectClass: top

After importing our domains from an LDIF we can now verify our 2 domains in LDAP get returned with the postmap command.

$ postmap -q ldap:/etc/postfix/ldap/

$ postmap -q ldap:/etc/postfix/ldap/


This post will touch on what objectClass and attributes I used specifically for OpenLDAP mail user records. I like the idea of keeping things well organized and with this simple structure I'm keeping the People and Mail containers separate. As a result, user records in the Mail organizational unit will have mail specific attributes not found in People user records.

For the attributes to work I needed to have postfix-book.schema loaded into LDAP.

Import Mail Account

dn: uid=jdoe,ou=Mail,dc=domain1,dc=net
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: PostfixBookMailAccount
uid: jdoe
cn: John Doe
sn: Doe
mailEnabled: TRUE
mailUidNumber: 5000
mailGidNumber: 5000
description: John Doe's mail account
userPassword: {SSHA}lFXu8SajJaj+vEk99SvsBa+sRLmLfiRV
mailHomeDirectory: /home/vmail/
mailStorageDirectory: maildir:/home/vmail/

Once this mail record is imported into LDAP, the primary mail account including additional mail aliases defined by the mailAlias attribute can be verified using the postmap command.

$ postmap -q ldap:/etc/postfix/ldap/

$ postmap -q ldap:/etc/postfix/ldap/

We know LDAP can find our alias because the primary mail account that owns the alias was returned.


The official Dovecot wiki should be your go to for setting up mail quotas, but here I am describing how I setup mail-user specific quotas to work with my LDAP environment.


I included a quota configuration for user_attrs in my dovecot-ldap.conf.ext consisting of the following

user_attrs = mailHomeDirectory=home,mailStorageDirectory=mail,mailUidNumber=uid,mailGidNumber=gid,mailQuota=quota_rule=*:bytes=%$

The quota limit is in the mailQuota field: mailQuota=quota_rule=*:bytes=%$

Once Dovecot has been restarted with the above quota limit, we can then add the mailQuota attribute with a value using a preferred metric unit. For example, a mail user record might have a quota limit of 250 MB.

mailQuota: 250MB

The above quota is user-specific so this will end up overriding the global quota.

Verify Quota

I use a lot of aliases to save time, so putting this in your user profile is recommended.

alias quota='doveadm quota get -u $1 '

$ quota johndoe
Quota name Type    Value  Limit                                             %
User quota STORAGE     0 256000                                             0
User quota MESSAGE     0      -                                             0

See the doveadm-quota wiki for additional options.